Organic Fertilizers / Natural Manures

What is organic fertilizers ?
Organic fertilizers are natural materials, which is derived from by-product of the plant & animals or plant and animal itself  e.g. farm yard manure (FYM), compost, vermicompost, cattle dung, sewage and sludge, oil cake and excrete of other animals play an important role in maintaining soil fertility through their effects on physico-chemical properties of soil. Organic fertilizers release nutrients after their decomposition. They release necessary nutrients, which is important for crops such as nitrogen, phosphorus, potash, calcium, sulphur, magnesium and other micro nutrients etc., organic fertilizers contain small percentage of nutrients and they are applied in large quantities.


 Organic Fertilizers :

Biofertilizers : 
Biofertilizers are symbiotic, asymbiotic, blue green algae (BGA), Azolla, Mycorrhiza and phosphorus solubilizers and mobilisers bacteria play an important role in maintaining soil fertility through atmospheric nitrogen fixation and production of plant growth promoting (PGP) substances. It helps to increase crop yields like wheat, rice, maize, sorghum, sunflower, mustered, cotton, etc. Biofertilizers are cheaper in cost, eco-friendly and renewable source of plant nutrients to supplement fertilizers for sustainable agriculture development. It's an integral part of plant nutrient management for maximising crop production.

Green manuring :
It is improving soil fertility, biological health and supplying a part of nutrient requirement of crop/cropping system an oldest practice. Green manure crops may be of grain legumes such as mungbean, soybean, black gram and cowpea. Some perennial woody multipurpose legumes viz., Leucaena deucocephala, Gliricidia sepium or non-grain legumes like Crotolaria, Sesbania and cluster bean widely used as a green manure.

Crop residues :
Crop residue I had specific amount of nutrients and the amount depend on the crop. According to number of researchers, appropriate amount of nutrients added to the soil by crop residues. Crop residue reduce the loss of nitrogen through leaching, volatilization and increases soil microbial activities. Use of crop residue more common in rice-wheat growing areas particularly in North-western India. After mechanisation of agriculture crop residue is surplus and it increased productivity.

Biopesticides :
Biopesticides are great demand in market. Biopesticides are cost effective, commercial viable as these are biodegradable and causes no soil, water and environmental pollution. It's capacity to control insect-pests and poses no harm to human health. Biopesticides agents are easily and abundantly available in nature. There are several pathogens including fungus, viruses, bacteria and protozoa cause diseases in insects and kill them.

Natural plant product as pesticides :
Allicin from the aqueous extract of garlic has a broad spectrum antibacterial property. Till now, many neem (Azardirchata indica) based formulation such as Neemguard, Nimbcidin, Neem-mark and Neoconeem are available in the market and used widely in agriculture. Strobllurin a fungicide extract from mushrooms, inhibitsbspore germination. Nicotine obtained from the leaves of Nicotiana tabaccum serve as good natural insecticide of vegetable origin. Natural pesticides are known to show low toxicity to human being and do not cause any harm to the predators in the food chain.

Bioherbicides :
some biological agents such as insects, fungus, bacteria, and parasites etc. are effective against unwanted growth of  number of weeds. These are either reduce growth or kill weeds. Weeds are generally controlled by bioherbicides. For Example - lantana Canara controlled by beetles and water hyacinth controlled by Rhizoctinia blight. Zygogramma blocolorata is effective against Congress grass.

Advantage of organic fertilizers :

* They improve soil physical properties by providing macro and micro nutrients.
* It is reduce the total dependency chemical fertilizers.
* Organic manure contains humic substances increase phosphorus availablity as they have very high cation exchange capacity.
* Provide nitrogen for crops.
* It's provide nutrients as well as improve soil tilth and water holding capacity of the soil.
* It is cost effective for farmers.
* Organic fertilizers are eco-friendly.

Disadvantages of organic fertilizers :

* Not all crop productivity  equally as expected by using organic fertilizers.
* Nutrient levels in organic fertilizers is lower.
* Producing organic fertilizer is complicated and time taking process.
* More labour required for producing organic fertilizers.
* Lack of coordination between researchers and farmers (lab to land).

Organic fertilizers nutrient rich, increase the life of the soil and farmers friendly techniques at the low budgeting rate. It is very much part of green technology. Organic fertilizers are greater hope for the sustainable future of the agriculture.

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  1. IPL Biological deals in high-quality biofertilizer of cotton, organic manures, and integrated nutrient management which will help you out in producing the best and large quantity of cotton in one time. One more thing you can do is that you can plant maize in between the cotton which gives shelter to birds which keeps cotton pests under check.

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