Cotton Textile Industry in India :

Cotton textile is traditional Industry of India. It is an agro-based industry & weight neutral industry.

Growing cotton in India has focused on textiles industry for over thousands of years, generating significant employment for both skilled and unskilled labours - thus helping strengthen the country's economy.

The cotton sector in India is considered the one of the most developed sector in the textile industry. At 18% of the Global total, India is the world largest producer of cotton. India cover largest area for cotton cultivation in the world, representing about 25% of the world's area under cultivation. Cotton producing States in India are Gujarat, Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Haryana, Punjab, Madhya Pradesh, Rajasthan, Karnataka, and Tamil Nadu.

Evolution of Cotton Textile Industry in India :

* Ancient & Medieval period cotton textile was a cottage industry.
* India's Monopoly over the manufacturing of cotton textile for about 3000 years - from 1500 BC (Harappan civilization) to 1500 AD.
* Cotton was used as a medium of exchange (barter system) in ancient period.
* During colonial period cotton exported to Eastern and European region.
* Imperial power established first Cotton mill in 1854 - Cotton Mill in Bombay.
* After second world war cotton mills increased from 389 in 1939 to 417 mills in 1945. Production of cotton cloth was also increased during that period.
* Swadeshi movement gave an impetus to indiegenous cotton textile.
* After partition cotton textile plunge into recession since 70% of cotton growing area went to West Pakistan but it has recovered well after independence.

Characteristics of Cotton Textile Industry in India :

* Traditional industry of India.
* Availability of different qualities of cotton on the basis of fiber length ~
2 inches - small staples
2 to 4 inches - medium staples
more than 4 inches - large staples
* As Raw materials are important for development of cotton Industry & Other factors are also important like market, power, labour, capital, technology etc.
* Labour intensive industry.
* Cheap labour costs in India.
* Due to colonial rule, India's textile industry develop in specific location (regional inequalities). E.g. highest number of Textile Industries were Mumbai & Ahmedabad but now out migration of cotton textile industry by the following reasons - trade unions, conventional machine, high labour cost etc.
* Cotton Textile Industry mostly develop near the city because it required labour, financial institutions Banks, insurance company, technology, trade centres, roads, railway connectivity, power.

Why Cotton Textile Industry came in India ?

* Favourable climate (tropical climate).
* Population - labour intensive industry (informal training required for unskilled labour).
* Largest producer of cotton.
* Traditional known.
* Technological shift from handloom to machine technology from the world war  (because German destroyed most of the cotton industry of the British. The Britisher shifted industry to India).
* Swadeshi movement also responsible for growing cotton textile industry in India.

Economic Significant of Cotton Textile Industry in India :

 * India is the world largest cotton producer, accounting for approx 38% of global cotton acreage and approx 23% of global cotton production.
* Employment generation more than 33 million people , second only to Agriculture. 
* India second largest exporter (after the USA) and the second largest consumer (after China)
* Within the Country, Maharashtra has the highest area under cultivation, at 41.2 lakh hectare, followed by Gujarat at 27.1 lakh & Telengana at 17.9 lakh. Togather these three states account for 72% of the total cotton acreage in the country.
* The cotton market in India is likely to recover from the subdued 2018 to 19 cotton season, during which yield declined by 11%. Production in 2019-20 is estimated to grow ~17%, as both yield & acreage rebound.

Challenges of Cotton Textile Industry in India : 

* Tough competition from synthetic clothes.
* Lack of power availablity & frequent power shutdown has resulted in the demise of several small scale power handlooms.
* Lack of good quality machinery, especially in knitting & wearing sector. As a result we are force to import fabric, which is the input for the garment industry. 
* Low labour output.
* Obsolete technology.
* Complex labour law.
* Problems of Land acquisition.
* Poor governance.
* Lack coordination between states.

Government Initiatives for Industry Development in India :

According to the Ministry of Textiles’ Cotton Textiles Export Promotion Council (TEXPROCIL), there was a 26% growth in cotton textile exports between April - September 2018. TEXPROCIL has also proposed to include cotton yarn, a value - added product, under the Merchandise Exports from India Scheme (MEIS) to boost the cotton textile industry in India.
Government of India has been rendering support to the cotton textile sector through initiatives such as Scheme for Integrated Textile Parks (SITP), Integrated Skill Development Scheme (ISDS), Integrated Processing Development Scheme (IPDS), Market Development Assistance (MDA) and Market Access Initiative (MAI). Another push to Amended Technology Upgradation Fund Scheme (ATUFS) has been provided under the special package of INR 6,000 cr for the made - ups and garments sector.

Summary :
Traditional Industry in India
Economic development
Lower competitive
Government Initiatives

Government of India

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