Urban Planning in India :

Urban planning in India is a technical and political process concern with the development and design of land use and the built environment including air, water and infrastructure passing into and out of urban areas, such as transportation, communication & distribution network. It deals with physical layout of human development.

According to UN habitat, the urban planning is defined as the planning and design of urban lands which guides Government and other organisation to support urban growth improves sustainability efficiency and equity through planning at all levels of governance.

According to census of India, Urban Centres are -
*Minimum population - 5000.
*Minimum density of population - 400 person per square kilometres.
*At least 75% male population engaged in non-Agricultural activities.

India's transition from rural to quasi Urban society. According to Census 2011, 31.2% population lives in town and it estimate that 50% will lives by 2050. This quasi urban transition accompanied with green energy, clean water, mass mobility, nutrition, education, healthcare , waste management to achieve a certain degree of Sustainable living.

According to UN, sustainable cities are -
*They should meet their inhabitant development needs with imposing sustainable demands on local/global natural resource systems.
*They should integrate socio-economic development, environment management and urban governances.
*The settlement should be inclusive, safe, resilient & sustainable.

Why is Urban Planning Need in India ?

* Rapid Urbanisation
* Due to unsustainable urban growth - significant lateral growth in the city region is very slow as compare to urban population.
* Management of Influx of migrants (increase unemployment, health issues, social issues, etc.).
* Increasing population in cities due to rapid shift from agriculture.
* Balancing unequal economic development - due to unequal distribution of natural resources.
* Optimum utilisation of resources.
* Reduce global warming by adopting greener and cleaner energy sources.

Challenges for Urban Planning in India :

1. Economic Challenges :
* Production and Resourcing : Rapid increase in Urban population due to this mismatch of the demand-supply balance along with sustainable utilisation of resources is difficult to maintain.
* Labour and Welfare : Major migration in urban region in the form of labours and daily wage earners. Therefore monitoring their working and living conditions and ensuring their welfare is a challenge.
* Technology and Infrastructure : Development of technology and infrastructure along with environment friendly is still a major concern.
* Investment and Fund Utilisation : India being a BPL country where around 35% of urban population is BPL and lack basic facilities.

2. Political Challenges :
* Governance : The multiplicity of governing bodies creates ambiguity regarding delivery of services.
* Law & Order : Due to unplanned urbanization major connection over the law and order.
* Security challenges for women and children (vulnerable section).
* Lack of proper surveillance system.
* Ethics and Accountability : It is a major challenges of governing body for sustainability of urban centres.

3. Social Challenges :
* Illegal encroachment and unplanned settlement (growing Slums).
* Degradation of societal norms.
* Health and sanitation issues.
* Increasing crime rate against women.
* More Inequality in urban centers.

4. Environmental Concerns :
* Environmental degradation.
* Lack of waste management.
* Change land use pattern.
* Increase deforestation & degradation.

Indian Government Initiative for Urban Planning : 

Ministry of Housing and Urban Development is the apex authority of Government of India at National level for the formulation of housing policy and programs in urban region (e.g. National Transport Policy, 2006, Metro train, Mono Rail etc.).

An innovation ecosystem in smart cities through SPIRIT (Smart Cities Promoting Innovation Research & Incubation in Technology). It is an initiative in collaboration with Atal Innovative Mission (AIM) & Start-up India program harnessing the strength of three initiatives.

According to census 2011,
31.2% Indian population lives in urban region. It is expected to rise 40% in 2030 and 50% in 2050.
When urbanization planned and managed well, cities become engine of economic growth and sustained development.
Urban India contributed 63% to the GDP (2011) & it projected to grow over 75% to the GDP (2030).

A three level strategy, to meet the Indian Urban Challenges :
1. First Level : Including all cities (more than 4300 cities) developmental strategies -
*Poverty alleviation
*Affordable Housing & sanitation are address through Deen Dayal Antyoday Yojana-National Urban Livelihood Mission (DAY-NULM), Pradhan Mantri Awas Yojana (Urban), Swachh Bharat Abhiyan -Urban (SBA-U).
* Provide "Housing for all' by 2022.

2. Second Level : Including 500 cities under AMRUT Mission(Atal Mission for Rejuvenation and Urban Transformation) for urban transformation by various ways -
Water supply and sewerage / septage which need economies of scale are implemented in 500 AMRUT cities more than 1 lakh population. It covers 60% of Urban population of India.

3. Third Level : 100 Smart cities are developed as light house to address the issues of 'Ease of Living' through increased use of digital technology and optimum utilisation of resources and developed as light house.

Various town planning departments set up. These department at the State level along with Central Government help established various master plans. Various large scale housing schemes, social-economic schemes, construction of big Commercial complex, relocation of slums, etc.vhave been implemented.

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